A method that parents and teachers use every day without even thinking about it.
To do this, do the following:
agree in advance with the class counselors on the time, place and content of the consultations; to organize timely informing and interaction of organizers and participants of planning; assist the facilitator in preparing for the start-up meeting and defending ideas and suggestions in the work plan; to instruct the leaders of microgroups on the course, timing and expected results of collective planning, techniques and methods of organizing the work of microgroups (how to act to achieve the best result); to help those responsible for certain areas of planning work.
The activities of the class community to develop a long-term plan should be divided into several periods:
I period – meeting-start of collective planning; Period II narrative topic ideas – consultations with people who know what to do and how to do it; III period – clarification of cases and friends; IV period – protection of ideas and proposals in the annual plan; V period – drawing up a plan of life of the class; VI period – understanding the results of collective planning.
Designing actions for pedagogical support of the plan of life of the class involves:
determination in the adult asset of the class of curators of the main directions of joint activity; appointment from among adults responsible for assisting students in the preparation and conduct of individual cases and activities; modeling of information and methodical support of the organization of educational process and vital activity in a class; planning of financial and logistical support of the class community; designing actions to assist the student body in expanding and strengthening internal and external social ties and relations.
Proper and consistent use of these forms, methods and techniques of collective planning – is the key to successful implementation of all activities for the preparation of a plan of educational work.
The final step in joint planning activities is to clarify, adjust the pedagogical plan and design a plan of educational work.
After using the techniques and methods of collective planning, the class teacher, as a rule, clarifies and corrects his original idea of building in the new school year of life and educational process in the class community. He tries to take into account the suggestions of students and parents and on the basis of their wishes to form more specific ideas about the target, content, organizational and evaluation and diagnostic components of future educational activities.
At this stage, the class teacher can already begin to draw up a plan of educational work. For this purpose the teacher needs to choose the most rational variant of the form and structure of the plan and to adhere at its drawing up of the offered requirements, to documents of pedagogical planning.
The advice of a scientist. The authors of the textbook “Pedagogy” call the following requirements for educational plans:
purposefulness and specificity of educational tasks; brevity of the plan, its compactness; variety of content, forms and methods, the optimal combination of education and organization of children’s activities; continuity, systematicity and consistency; combination of perspective and urgency of the planned types of work; unity of pedagogical management and activity of pupils; reality, taking into account the age and individual characteristics of students, their level of preparedness and living conditions; connection of intraclass work with work outside school; consistency of the plan with the activities of the school and children’s public organizations; flexibility of the plan.
What is hidden behind the term “child development support”?
We all face problems, but we are not always able to solve them on our own. It can be even harder for a child to find a solution – he may lack knowledge, skills, will, self-belief. She needs help. It can come in a variety of forms: tips, instructions, confident advice
There is only one type of help that can harm a child – to make the problem not a stimulus for development, but a cause of regression. This type of care is called “solving the problem for the child.”
To accompany means to develop
Human development occurs by solving his life problems. Where there are none, there is no development. The educational process for a growing person becomes the space in which problems arise and are solved. Ideally, it should become a catalyst for development, satisfying the inherent human desire to develop. In this case, it is enough to teach the child to cope with a wider range of increasingly complex and interesting problems. But the problem is the difference problem. One is solved in class with the teacher or at home with parents. Another slows down development for a long time, the very fact of its existence hinders the solution of other, no less important problems. Experts have developed a detailed classification of the difficulties faced by children in learning. These are problems in the following areas:
training (related to the inability or inability to read, write, count, do basic logic operations); “School career” or choice of educational and professional path (inability to decide which school to go to, which specialization to choose, which profession to start preparing for, repeat the missed year due to illness or go to a specialized school, etc.) ; social and emotional relations (difficulties of adaptation in the children’s team, interpersonal conflicts, aggression, rejection of social norms and rules, inability to obey discipline); formation and maintenance of a healthy lifestyle (lack of perception of health as values, various addictions, inability to overcome the disease); free time (inability to fill it, inability to realize their dreams and desires, problems in forming the skills necessary for life).
Why for one person these are ordinary life tasks, which he successfully solves on his own or with the help of parents, friends, teachers, and for another – an insurmountable obstacle to development? There can be many reasons. Features of development, limited opportunities of the social environment, lack of contact and mutual understanding with parents, professional incompetence of teachers. In addition, problems also have a tendency to turn into a snowball: when the inability to solve the problem is followed by skipping school, cheating on parents, running away from home, joining an informal company, getting acquainted with drugs. As they say: “All because there was no nail in the smithy.”
In these cases, the system of psychological-pedagogical and medical-social support (PPMS) of children’s development in the educational process is able to provide assistance. What is hidden behind the term “support”? This is a method of solving the problems of the child’s development by encouraging its independent activity. A method that parents and teachers use every day without even thinking about it. But it often happens that their efforts are not enough. Then there is a need for intervention of support specialists – people who can help the child solve complex problems or prevent their occurrence.
Support consists of a number of stages: diagnosis of the problem, analysis of possible solutions, development of a solution plan, primary care in solving the problem, evaluation of effectiveness.
It differs from other methods of helping children solve problems:
complex nature (combination of psychological-pedagogical and medical-social approaches); “Being on the side of the child” (taking into account, of course, the role of other participants in the problem situation); continuity (assistance is completed only at the time of solving the problem or the emergence of a steady tendency to solve); pedagogy (the desire not to solve the problem for the child, and teach her to solve typical problems on their own).
There are times when every child needs support. These are the periods:
choice of further educational route; transition to the system of professional education; crises associated with the transition from one age of development to another.
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There are two types of support programs – system-oriented and individual-oriented.
Individually-oriented support is aimed at solving the problems of a particular individual. For example, a student constantly misses lessons. Conversations with parents, persuasion of the class teacher, a call to the head teacher do not give effect. For the support specialist, this signal received from one of the participants in the problem is a command before the start of the activity. The results of the situation analysis conducted by him and his colleagues will show what the decision plan will be. The causes of conflict can be many, each such case is completely unique. The content of individual-oriented support consists in translating a unique crisis situation into everyday well-being.
Individually-oriented support requires from the specialist a certain high technological culture:
sequence in the implementation of support; possession of diagnostic techniques (including technology of problem-oriented conversation); ability to apply schemes of system analysis of a situation; ability to build a plan to solve the problem and provide primary assistance in its implementation; the ability to monitor the effectiveness of the plan and build a new plan in case of inefficiency of the first.
In the practice of individual support we often face two professional problems:
substituting existing assistance for “empathetic discussion”. This is when a complex problem is endlessly discussed, but concrete steps to solve it are not developed or implemented; tactics of “football”, when after the statement of the problem there is an external institution or service that should deal with its solution (however, sometimes such redirection may be quite appropriate).
System-oriented support is designed to solve the problems of large teams. Here is an example. In one of the schools, teachers recorded an inexplicable increase in students’ aggression towards each other. There was a need to apply to the district psychological center, which studied the causes of the growth of aggression, its location and targeting. The analysis of the collected information allowed to develop a program consisting of several easy-to-implement measures, the implementation of which helped to solve the problem.
Another example of system-oriented support is special work with students at the end of the 9th grade.