For several months, the entire territory of Ukraine was under Nazi occupation.
In the conditions of the “division” the editorial office and the printing house formed a single complex and moved together according to the movements of the headquarters. Special mention should be made of front-line photojournalists and cinematographers, who could not describe the events in the words of participants or eyewitnesses, but had to climb into the hell of battle for valuable footage.
Thus, the new war gave rise to a new type of press – the Communist Party-Front. It differed from the “peaceful” types by a certain romance of extraordinary, historical events, newspapers created an atmosphere of hatred for the enemy, the will to win, the pursuit of military feat, victory, overcoming terrible difficulties and sacrifices to defend the homeland and ultimate victory.
To some extent, this links such newspapers with the Sich Riflemen’s press or with underground magazines, newspapers, and leaflets of the Ukrainian insurgent army. But the completely opposite ideology – communist, international instead of democratic, national – generates features of the topic, problems, titles, vocabulary and so on.
The organization and methods of underground journalistic work were similar. Correspondents from among former teachers, activists, etc. were appointed in the combat units, and they secretly passed materials to editorial offices that had direct contact with the military command and the political center.
Comparing the OUN-UPA press and the Red partisans, it should be borne in mind that the former relied on the support of a limited population in a relatively small area – while the latter was a huge country with a strong economy, army and ties to the Great Land. According to the documents, 84 marching printing houses with everything they needed and with typesetters and printers were sent by partisans by plane. The number of UPA printing houses probably reached 10-20.
A number of urgent measures were taken to effectively ensure the activities of this press in the extraordinary conditions of the front and rear of the Central Committee of the party.
The structure of media management was changed: the leading functions were transferred to the Department of Propaganda and Agitation of the Central Committee of the CPSU (B), which sent numerous and very detailed instructions to the editorial offices: what to write, how to write , what features to pay attention to. They often contained an analysis of issues of individual newspapers with common errors.
Confirmation of the invariably great role of the press as an indispensable “cog” in the party machine, even in such extraordinary conditions (and perhaps in them) was a letter from the Department of Propaganda and Agitation dated March 3, 1942 “On the work of district newspapers. ” Interestingly, in addition to the worries associated with wartime, it was here, for the first time during the months of the war, that the need for general political publications to pay attention to the work of cooperatives, canteens, and medical facilities was emphasized.
The next guideline, sent to the editorial office of the Office, was entitled “On the shortcomings of newspapers in covering the work of industrial enterprises. Letter from the Department of Propaganda and Agitation of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) to all editors of city, regional, regional and republican newspapers. “The shortcomings turned out to be numerous, they were thoroughly analyzed and criticized. It is worthy of respect that in difficult conditions the local press was required not to weaken the attention to the work of shops, canteens, public transport, hospitals, children’s institutions:
“Underestimation of cultural and everyday issues leads to the separation of newspapers from workers, from their daily needs and issues, reduces the authority of the newspaper and weakens its influence and the effectiveness of the struggle for the implementation and overfulfillment of production plans.”
It is known that in the first weeks of the war the Nazis captured western Ukraine, and in its first months occupied a large eastern part of it. For several months, the entire territory of Ukraine was under Nazi occupation. The issue of party-Soviet newspapers in eastern Ukraine has now ceased altogether, with the exception of leaflets by underground activists and printed publications of large partisan units under the command of Kovpak, Fedorov (Partizanskaya Pravda, etc.).
These newspapers were published in forest printing houses on equipment delivered from the Great Land, along with weapons, explosives, and packs of Soviet Ukraine and central Moscow newspapers. They played an extremely important role in the formation of combat units and their conduct of hostilities. A thorough and interesting study of the short but vivid history of the press of the guerrilla movement was made by SI Gorevalov, students must read his monograph.
The Central Committee of the CP (B) U and the Soviet government were evacuated to the east. Radio station named after Taras Shevchenko broadcast in Ukrainian from Saratov, Soviet Ukraine from Moscow, and the front-line radio station Dnipro was brought directly to the battlefields. The body of the Central Committee of the CP (b) U and the Verkhovna Rada of the USSR is the newspaper “For Soviet Ukraine!” in 1942 it was published even without specifying the place of its release.
The expulsion of the Nazi occupiers from Ukrainian lands began in the Voroshilovgrad (now Luhansk) region, and soon in 1943 the central Ukrainian party-Soviet newspaper Sovetskaya Ukraina began publishing in that city, later its editorial office moved to Kharkiv, and from there returned to Kyiv in the fall of 1943.
The restoration of the lower levels of the party-Soviet press began in the Luhansk region. Already in the first weeks after the restoration of the district committees, the parties began to publish “Under the Banner of Lenin” (Milove), “Lenin’s Call” (Rubizhne), “Lenin’s Victory” (Bridges).
Later, with the advance of the front line to the west, one after another regional newspapers began to appear in the same party-Soviet version, they lasted until the end of Gorbachev’s perestroika, ie until the early 1990s: “Socialist Donbass” (Stalin ), “Socialist Kharkiv”. “Dawn” (Dnepropetrovsk).
The first issues of the restored newspapers appeared on the second or third day after the liberation of the regional centers from the Nazi occupiers. Published in two strips, on translucent or, conversely, very thick paper, they, nevertheless, marked the beginning of a peaceful life. Thus, “Dneprovskaya Pravda” (Dnepropetrovsk) in the first October issues of 1943 published orders of the city executive committee, news from the fronts, international information. Of interest is the order banning the population from grazing cattle in public gardens in the city center.
Voroshilovgradskaya Pravda reports on the condition of the region’s mines and the first steps to resume coal mining.
Instead, in large cities, the occupation authorities began to publish collaborationist newspapers, such as New Life in Kharkiv, but these publications were not widely distributed among the population. In essence, they were a mixture of official reports from military commandant’s offices, burgomaster administrations, and reprints from Goebbels publications in Germany.
Genre of reportage-investigation: features of training of reporters. Abstract
The abstract provides information on the peculiarities of training reporters for the genre of reportage-investigation
The training of reporters to work in the genre of reportage-investigation has specific characteristics that depend on many conditions and are formed from the first year of study at the Institute of Journalism. The peculiarity of professional training is to work out theoretical references from the first practical classes.
Reporters to work in the investigation are often determined intuitively by the teacher, as many years of practice allow to determine at a glance: whether a student is suitable for work in a complex and dangerous genre, or better to offer future students to look for themselves in analytics, journalism and more.
When it comes to intuition as a method of scientific knowledge of the world, for opponents of this “semi-mystical enlightenment” there is a universal phrase, which was defined by Albert Einstein over the years in his book “Physics and Modernity”. It sounds aphoristically beautiful: “The real value is, in fact, intuition.”
The same goes for identifying future reporters who want to work in the investigative reporting genre. The teacher immediately catches the indescribable interest, sometimes – excessive vital energy, the desire to immediately become famous as a result of the investigation of a high-profile case, youthful maximalism, etc.
This whole set of individual psychophysiological properties of the individual makes it possible to judge his creative potential. During classes in the discipline “Reporter’s work” experienced teachers of the Institute of Journalism begin with the development of actual practical skills of creating any report.
Thus, the author of the scientific development, for several practical tasks, works out the so-called “hook” – the first phrase that should attract the reader’s attention. It is further stated that the dynamization of the story in the report-investigation is achieved by introducing the text of the interview into the structure.
But when the fragment of the interview with the witness of the event, presented at the beginning of the story, should prove the authenticity of what is happening, the same fragment, presented in the second part of the report-investigation should contain “background” comparative characteristics. Taking into account the national mentality, it is desirable to introduce into the text of the report-investigation elements of analytics, digital data – then all the material gives the impression of thorough development.
Even based on these judgments, it becomes clear that practical classes on reportage-investigation necessarily include topics of other disciplines: professional ethics, psychology and journalism; students should be given an idea of analytical genres, introduced with the varieties of “new” journalism, etc.
Therefore, the problem of “pen” in the report-investigation should be solved only in the complex of all, without exception, the disciplines studied at the Institute of Journalism.
After all, for example, writing about economic investigations can not do without knowledge of at least the basics of economics; deploying a literary investigation – one should have an idea of modern literary criticism; writing a report-investigation on a criminal subject, it is necessary to have specific knowledge in 123helpme.me the field of jurisdiction.
Therefore, a professional teacher is faced with a dilemma: to train reporters in the genre of reportage-investigation, empirically, waiting until they gain professional and theoretical experience, or, starting from junior year to choose an individual specialization that should not only determine the professional preferences of the reporter determining, in fact, fate?